This clinical-pharmacological approach, different from the conventional allopathic approach, makes this medicine indicated to conditions where individuals are immunocompromised or immunocompetent, since their homeopathic formulations, very diluted, do not produce side effects in patients who use them.
The Canova ® medications frame within the concept of homeopathic medicine, because its production technique is based on the principles dictated by Hahnemann, homeopathy creator. Unlikely most homeopathic medicines, Canova is a homeopathic formula with several medicines that promote a vast general effect, this was confirmed in clinical practice and scientific base research.
There are several medical conditions that immune system is affected as: chronic parasitic, infectious and inflammatory diseases and neoplastic conditions. In these clinical situations is common the body increase the productions of a substance called Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF), which, in excess, may have a toxic effect on the human body, producing a dramatic clinical and completion, often fatal, called cachexia. One of the most powerful Canova´s actions is to precisely modulate this substance production, also known as TNF-alpha.
The pharmaceutical Canova's forms of presentation are: drops, inhalant, single dosis, gel, lotion and cream. Because they are not toxic they are safe for all uses.
Action of Medicament
Macrophages are cells that can be found in all of the organism tissues, and perform important functions in the immune system. The engulf and digestion of cellular debris and pathogens lead to the activation of the immune system through the presentation of antigens to lymphocytes, the secretion of substances capable of regulating the immune system and the elaboration of substances capable of destroying other cells and organisms (ABBAS, LICHTMAN & POBER, 2000).
Ontogenetically, macrophages are originated from pioneer cells of the yolk sac, migrating to the liver, spleen and marrow bone before and right after birth. In adult individuals, macrophages are originated in a pluripotent myeloid cell, present in the marrow bone. Pro-monocytes originate monocytes, which move from the marrow bone into the bloodstream. Monocytes stay in the blood for 1 to 3 days, and then migrate to several tissues, where they differentiate and form a resident population of macrophages, with a life span that varies from 2 to 4 months (NELSON et al., 1990; NEVEU, 1996). Resident macrophages of the conjunctive tissue were previously called fixed macrophages and the ones that developed as a result from an exogenous stimulus and migrated to specific sites were called free macrophages. These names have been substituted by resident macrophages and activated macrophages, respectively (GARTNER; HIATT, 1997).
Activated macrophages are a little larger than the non-activated, mainly due to an increase in the cytoplasmic volume (STITES; TERR, 1992). They have their metabolic activity, mobility and phagocytic activity quickly increased (ERWIG et al., 1998) being much more efficient to destroy bacteria and other pathogens.
The variety of stimulus that can activate macrophages is really wide: direct contact with microorganisms or inert debris, with bacterial LPS, with products from the damaged tissue, with protein components of the system or the bloodstream. The activation may also be induced by certain cytokines that can be secreted by lymphocytes around (STITES; TERR, 1992). These stimuli modify some of its properties, such as growth, differentiation, activation, migration, endocytosis and secretion (GORDON et al., 1988).
Immune system disorders can be the cause for many infirmities, from autoimmune diseases to immune deficiency syndromes. Also, the responsiveness of the immune system determines decisively the patient’s prognosis and an inadequate or insufficient immune response may cause the loss of the organism’s fight against the disease. This is why physicians and researchers have been more and more interested in medicaments and therapies that act as immune response modulators, aiming the regulation of the organism to respond, in an adequate way, to any aggressive stimulus, without any side effects to it.
Most medical treatments are effective to control diseases, but many times they produce undesirable side effects. Homeopathy is a method of treatment that aims to intensify the mechanisms of cure of the own organism, and generally do not present toxicity, making this medical specialty be more popular every day. But homeopathy still lacks much scientific research on its mechanisms of action. Canova® is a homeopathic medicine that has been used successfully in the treatment of many patients, the ones that need a stimulation of the immune system. Canova is prescribed along with usual allopathic medicines, recommended for the diseases. Patients present an improvement in their symptoms and, specially, in their quality of life. Besides, Canova seems to relieve the side effects of the conventional medicines, with whom they have been used together.
Macrophages treated with Immunomodulator Canova® show activation with physiological and morphological alterations, with great nuclei, much euchromatin, more spreading, vesicular cytoplasm and many projections.
Human alveolar macrophages
Mechanisms of Action of the Medicine Canova
Modifications in the macrophages, which explain the action of Canova medicine and the clinical findings in daily medical practice.
1) Decrease on the production of Tumor Necrosis Factor - alpha (TNF)
The production of that factor or cytokin is elevated in some chronic diseases, as cancer, AIDS, rheumatoid arthritis, etc. That high production has as consequence loss of appetite, muscular pains, loss of corporal mass. After the treatment with the medicine Canova that first molecular modification is noticed quickly at the clinic, by the return of the appetite, decrease of the pains, recovery of the muscular mass.
2) Increase of Nitric Oxide production (NO)
Molecule that allows an effective and unspecific mechanism of defense, resulting in the decrease of infections. Oxygen metabolites play an important role in the intracellular and extracellular killing of micro-organisms, and ma y also serve as media tors of the immune system and modulators of cellular activities such as adhesion, phagocytosis and signal transduction. After the treatment with the medicine Canova that second molecular modification is noticed quickly at the clinic by the opportunistc diseases reduction.
Nitric oxide production (p<0.01)
3) The Increase of the Endocitic Index
Phagocyte capacity and to destroy strange particles (microorganisms, fungi, bacteria, protozoa, virus) is increased. That third modification increases the endocitic capacity, also noticed quickly at the clinic by the decrease of the infections, after the treatment with the medicine Canova.
Macrophage activation after 24 hours with Canova
Observe macrophages with activated morphology after 24 hours of treatment with Canova TM.
Immunology, the science that studies the organism defenses, has been more studied for the last years, contributing in an important way to clarify the mechanism of many diseases and, consequently, the way to treat them.
Molecular biology analyses the way that molecules work; genetics nowadays is mapping the human genome, elucidating how genes work. Both of them, with quick advances, are being able to enlighten diseases that were unknown so far. Every disease provokes reactions in the organism’s immune defense. This system, therefore, is connected to the person’s resistance, acting more adequately when there is balance and health. In AIDS, for example, the virus responsible for the infection attacks the immune system directly, complicating the natural defenses and decreasing the individual’s resistance.
All diseases caused by viruses, bacteria, fungi and inflammations cause a reaction in the individual immune system. This is done specially through lymphocytes, which are inflammatory cells and take messages to the entire organism. These messages are responsible for the inflammation process which indicates that the body is defending itself, and causes redness, heat, swelling and fever. Also, in internal diseases, exams are altered, demonstrating the presence of an infection and/or inflammation.
It’s impossible to survive without the immune system, because it is responsible for most signals and symptoms of diseases. In allergic processes, for example, the person rejects a certain substance and the immune system shows it causing rashes, itches, scaling and so on. In this new era of Medicine, we can count on immunomodulators, which are active remedies in the immune system chain. Therefore, they will not act directly on the virus or bacteria, but it will assist the organism to defend itself more adequately, avoiding undesirable effects that come from infections and inflammations. The Immunomodulator will make the response from lymphocytes more effective, contributing to the formation of a higher quantity of cytokines, the main defense agents. With a better defense, the organism can eliminate the virus without the help of potent antiviral drugs, which usually have undesirable side effects. Immunomodulators support the organism’s defense through a specific action in the immune system, recovering the capacity of cells to eliminate tumors. The action of these medicines is always in the immune system, on lymphocytes or cytokines, balancing and reinforcing the natural defenses of the organism. It’s important to emphasize that the development of these drugs was only possible because current technology brought more knowledge on this area, deciphering the path of immunological response to several kinds of diseases.
This kind of medicament will also be effective on the treatment of immune deficiencies, genetical or not, and in autoimmune diseases such as vitiligo, systemic lupus erythematosus, among others. This way we are walking towards the 3rd millennium using intelligent drugs that will be less and less aggressive and more efficient curing diseases, since they improve and recover the natural defenses of the human organism.
The central role of macrophages on the Immune System
Macrophages have a central role in the initial infection response before the action of immunity mediated by T and B cells. Macrophages act as processing and antigen presenting cells and finally, when T cells respond to the antigen and release lymphocytes, these act in macrophages causing their activation.
The central Role of Macrophage in Immunity and Inflammation
Macrophages and their products aforementioned are important in induction, inflammation, tissue reorganization and repairing stages, and also perform effector function.
Diseases are facts of life to which, unfortunately, we are all subjected to. When they come, being severe or not, we all want basically the same thing: a quick and smooth treatment that can cure us and relieve pain and suffering. The immune system is a set of defense and cures mechanisms of our body, highly competent and controlled. However, many diseases may be the result from disorders of the immune system, where its actions determines decisively the patient’s prognosis, and an inadequate or insufficient immune response may mean the loss of the organism fighting the disease.
In these cases, why not rehabilitate it and stimulate it to perform its role, guiding it in the elimination of the disease?
The immune system is composed by numerous kinds of cells and a variety of molecules, which are spread throughout our body (SEADI, 1998). The cells that constitute the immune system are originated in the marrow bone, where many cells also mature. From the marrow, they migrate, circulating through the lymphatic and circulatory systems.
The collective and coordinated response to strange substances is called immune response (ABBAS; LICHTMAN; POBER, 2000). There are several kinds of immune response. Broadly, it falls into two categories: innate or adaptive (acquired) (ROITT; BROSTOFF; MALE, 1999). These responses are an integrated group of structures, cells and blood elements that allow the organism to recognize and respond to potentially aggressive agents (antigens) (SEADI, 1998).
Innate immunity is the one we are born with. It is the defense mechanism that we have even before being exposed to any strange substance (SEADI, 1998). This is the main defense line against invasive organisms. Its characteristics are the ones it presents throughout life, not having specificity or memory. It protects mainly against bacteria, fungi and viruses. Its components are mechanical barriers, secreted products, a group of leukocytes called phagocytes and another group of cells called (WOOD; AUSTYN, 1993). The adaptive immunity is not present when we are born, but it is acquired with development. It is a component of an integrated defense system of the host, where numerous cells and molecules work cooperatively. The specific immune system retains many of its natural immune mechanisms, necessary to eliminate pathogens, with the addition of two important properties: specificity and memory. The specific immune response amplifies the mechanisms of natural immunity and triggers its function, particularly with repeated exposure to the same strange antigen (ABBAS; LICHTMAN; POBER, 2000).
As every homeopathic medicament, Canova® acts as a catalyst that triggers the innate healing mechanisms of the organism. For a more adequate and successful use, the bottle must be energically and uniformly shaken (a process called succussion). The succussion consists of beating the bottom of the bottle against the palm of the hand 15 times.
Percentage of activated macrophages after different times of dinamizations (sucussion) of the medicine Canova® (p<0.05 when compared to the control group)
Keep the medicine protected from sunlight, heat (do not keep it in the car’s glove compartment), strong odors, electronic machines, etc.
Do not keep the medicine in the refrigerator.
Do not brush your teeth and avoid any flavors in your mouth (candy, chocolate, etc.) for at least 15 minutes BEFORE and AFTER taking the medicine.
Managing your lifestyle and stress is a necessary compliment to any therapeutic intervention, and patients must be encouraged to practice these principles.
- Stimulate the practice of physical activities whenever possible, specially walking in open air spaces.
- Stimulate working and activities that demand responsibility.
- Stimulate hobbies and leisure activities that distract the patient from Day-to-day tension.
- Recommend, whenever possible, a diet that is rich in protein (fish and soy)
- Avoid fat and fried food, smoking and alcoholic beverages.