Evaluation of the Biochemical, Hematological and Genotoxic Parameters of Cebus Apella Treated with N-Methyl-Nitrosurea (NMU) Followed by Treatment with a Complex Homeopathic Compound (Canova) (2016)

Canova is a homeopathic compound that presents antimutagenic and anticancer properties. N-methyl-nitrosourea is a carcinogenic agent that causes alterations on DNA. This study was conducted to evaluate the antimutagenic effects of Canova on Cebus apella non-human primates treated with N-methyl-nitrosourea. Six animals were randomly assigned in two groups, one composed by two animals, who received only N-methyl-nitrosourea (NMU group) and another one consisting on four animals treated with N-methyl-nitrosourea followed by Canova treatment (CA group). Body weight, biochemical and hematological analysis were performed. Micronuclei test and Comet assay were carried out to evaluate genotoxicity. N-methyl-nitrosourea treatment led to an overall reduction in the hematologic cell count and the administration of Canova limited the adverse effects in the hematologic system on CA group. Canova also reduced micronuclei frequency and the DNA damage index. It suggests that Canova may have a role as an immune response modulator by inducing leukocyte proliferation.

Year of publication: 2016

in: Homeopathy (2016) 105, 265e269

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In vitro assessment of anticytotoxic and antigenotoxic effects of CANOVA. (2016)

CANOVA (CA) is a homeopathic immunomodulator. It contains several homeopathic medicines prepares according to the Brazilian Pharmacopoeia. CA is indicated in clinical conditions in which the immune system is impaired and against tumors. N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (NMU) is an N-nitroso compound, with genotoxic/mutagenic properties. Although several studies have shown promising results in the use of CA, there are no studies reporting possible antigenotoxic effects. Method: This study evaluated the in vitro antigenotoxic and anticytotoxic effects of CA in human lymphocytes exposed to NMU. Samples of human lymphocytes that were subjected to different concentrations of a mixture containing CA and NMU were used. The genotoxicity/antigenotoxicity of CA was evaluated by the comet assay, anticytotoxicity was assessed by quantification of apoptosis and necrosis using acridine orange/ethidium bromide. Results: CA significantly reduced DNA damage induced by NMU and reduced significantly the frequency of NMU-induced apoptosis after 24 h of treatment. Conclusion: CA has an important cytoprotective effect significantly reducing the DNA damage and apoptosis induced by the carcinogen NMU.

Year of publication: 2016

in: Journal of Biotherapy

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Evaluation of the Immunological Cellular Response of Cebus apella Exposed to the Carcinogen N-Methyl-N-nitrosourea and Treated with CANOVA®. (2014)

The immune response modifier Canova® is a homeopathic remedy indicated for patients with depressed immune system, since this drug appears to increase adaptive immunity and induce an immune response against multiple and severe pathological conditions, including cancer. We evaluated the pattern of immune cellular response in nonhuman primates of the species Cebus apella exposed to Nmethyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU) with and without Canova®. Twelve animals were divided into four groups, with three animals each: negative control and three experimental groups, MNU-alone (35 days); MNU (35 days)-plus- Canova® (3 days) and Canova®-alone (3 days). The animals received MNU orally and Canova® by three intravenous injections. Evaluation of the cellular immune response was performed by immunophenotyping of T-lymphocytes (CD4+, CD8+), B-lymphocytes and natural killer cells. Analysis was also performed of the cell cycle. Our results suggest an increase of T-lymphocytes (CD4+CD3+) only in the Canova® group, while in the MNU-plus- Canova® group only B lymphocytes increased.

Year of publication: 2014

in: in vivo 28: 837-842 (2014)

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Lymphocyte proliferation stimulated by activated Cebus apella macrophages treated with a complex homeopathic immune response modifiers. (2012)

We observed that Canova actives macrophages in vivo and ex vitro. The lymphocytes cultured in a supplemented medium with macrophages activated by Canova treatment presented a higher number of proliferation cells than lymphocytes not exposed to macrophages activated by Canova. The Interferon gamma and Interleukin-5 cytokines were only observed in the medium of lymphocytes exposed to macrophages activated by Canova. Thus, Canova has potential as a new adjuvant therapy. Canova is a complex homeopathic medicine that enhances a specific immunologic response against several exogenous and endogenous conditions. Canova activates macrophages both in vivo and in vitro. Aim and method: We evaluated the effects of macrophages activated by Canova in vivo and ex vitro in the proliferation of lymphocytes. Canova was used to activate Cebus apella macrophages in vivo or ex vitro with Canova. Lymphocytes were cultured with the macrophage culture medium. The analysis of Canova effects in cultured lymphocytes was performed according to the cell cycle phase using flow cytometry. The Interferon gamma and Interleukin-5 cytokines quantification in these lymphocyte culture media was performed by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results: We observed that Canova actives macrophages in vivo and ex vitro. The lymphocytes cultured in a supplemented medium with macrophages activated by Canova treatment presented a higher number of proliferation cells than lymphocytes not exposed to macrophages activated by Canova. The Interferon gamma and Interleukin-5 cytokines were only observed in the medium of lymphocytes exposed to macrophages activated by Canova. Thus, Canova has potential as a new adjuvant therapy.

Year of publication: 2012

in: Homeopathy

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The protective effect of Canova homeopathic medicine in cyclophosphamide-treated non-human primates. (2012)

Canova activates macrophages and indirectly induces lymphocyte proliferation. Here we evaluated the effects of Canova in cyclophosphamide-treated non-human primates. Methods: Twelve Cebus apella were evaluated. Four animals were treated with Canova only. Eight animals were treated with two doses of cyclophosphamide (50 mg/kg) and four of these animals received Canova. Body weight, biochemistry and hematologic analyses were performed for 40 days. Micronucleus and comet assays were performed for the evaluation of DNA damage. Results: We observed that cyclophosphamide induced abnormal WBC count in all animals. However, the group treated with cyclophosphamide plus Canova presented a higher leukocyte count than that which received only cyclophosphamide. Cyclophosphamide induced micronucleus and DNA damage in all animals. The frequency of these alterations was significantly lower in the Canova group than in the group without this medicine. Conclusions: Our results demonstrated that Canova treatment minimizes cyclophosphamide myelotoxicity in C. apella.

Year of publication: 2012

in: Food and Chemical Toxicology 50 (2012) 4412–4420

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Experimental Gastric Carcinogenesis in Cebus apella Nonhuman Primates. (2011)

The evolution of gastric carcinogenesis remains largely unknown. We established two gastric carcinogenesis models in New- World nonhuman primates. In the first model, ACP03 gastric cancer cell line was inoculated in 18 animals. In the second model, we treated 6 animals with N-methyl-nitrosourea (MNU). Animals with gastric cancer were also treated with Canova Immunomodulator. Clinical, hematologic, and biochemical, including C-reactive protein, folic acid, and homocysteine, analyses were performed in this study. MYC expression and copy number was also evaluated. We observed that all animals inoculated with ACP03 developed gastric cancer on the 9th day though on the 14th day presented total tumor remission. In the second model, all animals developed pre-neoplastic lesions and five died of drug intoxication before the development of cancer. The last surviving MNU-treated animal developed intestinal-type gastric adenocarcinoma observed by endoscopy on the 940th day. The level of C-reactive protein level and homocysteine concentration increased while the level of folic acid decreased with the presence of tumors in ACP03-inoculated animals and MNU treatment. ACP03 inoculation also led to anemia and leukocytosis. The hematologic and biochemical results corroborate those observed in patients with gastric cancer, supporting that our in vivo models are potentially useful to study this neoplasia. In cell line inoculated animals, we detected MYC immune reactivity, mRNA overexpression, and amplification, as previously observed in vitro. In MNU-treated animals, mRNA expression and MYC copy number increased during the sequential steps of intestinal-type gastric carcinogenesis and immune reactivity was only observed in intestinal metaplasia and gastric cancer. Thus, MYC deregulation supports the gastric carcinogenesis process. Canova Immunomodulator restored several hematologic measurements and therefore, can be applied during/after chemotherapy to increase the tolerability and duration of anticancer treatments.

Year of publication: 2011

in: Plos One

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Canova medication modifies parasitological parameters in mice infected with Trypanosoma cruzi. (2010)

The goals of this study were to evaluate the effect of the Canova medication, a homeopathic immune system modulator, on the evolution of infection induced by the Trypanosoma cruzi Y strain in mice. The animals were divided into five groups: (i) untreated infected controls (I), (ii) infected animals treated with benznidazole (Bz), (iii) infected animals treated with the Canova medication (CM), (iv) infected animals treated with benznidazole and the Canova medication (Bz + CM), and (v) uninfected controls that received only the vehicle (grain alcohol) (C). The parameters evaluated were: parasitemia, mortality, control of cure, and tissue parasitism analysis. Our results showed that the evolution of the experimental infection was modified by treatment with CM, and that daily and consecutive doses were harmful to the animals, causing death in 100% of the infected animals in a brief period. The analysis of parasitism performed on the organs on the 12th day post infection showed that in infected animals treated with CM, the number of amastigote/nests in the spleen was significantly reduced, while in cardiac tissue, intestine, and liver the number was significantly increased compared with infected control animals. These results indicate that CM has a negative influence on the host–parasite relationship, modifying the tropism of the parasite for tissues, and increasing the parasitemia peak in this experimental model.

Year of publication: 2010

in: Experimental Parasitology 126

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Lymphocyte proliferation stimulated by activated human macrophages treated with Canova. (2009)

Canova (CA) is a homeopathic medication with immunomodulatory properties, recommended for patients with a depressed immune system. CA has been reported to increase in leukocyte numbers, cellular differentiation and reduction in tumor size. Aim and method: Since CA may stimulate lymphocyte differentiation, proliferation, and/or survival, the aim of the present study was to compare the mitotic index (MI) of phytohemagglutinin-stimulated human lymphocytes cultured in a medium supplemented with human macrophages activated by CA, with lymphocytes cultured in a medium without CA-treated macrophages. Results: In this study, the MI of lymphocyte cultured received the medium containing CA-stimulated macrophages showed a higher proliferation index (p<0.01) than the lymphocytes cultured in a medium without CA-treated macrophages. Our results suggest that CA treatment, in addition to activating macrophages, indirectly induces lymphocyte proliferation and has potential as a new adjuvant therapeutic approach.

Year of publication: 2009

in: Homeopathy

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Control cells and adjacent cells treated with Canova.

Control cells and adjacent cells treated with Canova.

Action of the medicine Canova® on peritoneal resident macrophages infected with Trypanosoma cruzi. (2008)

Approximately 20 million of people are chronically infected with Trypanosoma cruzi in Latin America. The present work investigated the action of the homeopathic medicine Canova® on in vitro experimental infections with T. cruzi Y strain, using Swiss mice resident peritoneal macrophages. Our results demonstrated that Canova® induced a decrease in the production of H2O2 and TNF-a at 20 and 40% concentrations when compared to the control RPMI. However, when compared with this medicine excipient, a significant decrease in these mediators was observed with Canova® at 40% concentration only. The production of NO and phagocytic activity were not affected. TNF-a inhibits T. cruzi replication in peritoneal macrophages in vitro, becoming an important agent of infection control by this parasite. Within this context, Canova®, unlike what has been reported with other infections, would function as a stimulator of the infection, since it inhibited the production of TNF-α by peritoneal resident macrophages in vitro. Further studies should be carried out with elicited macrophages, in order to confirm the inhibitory activity of Canova® on the production of TNF-α and other mediators in macrophages infected by T. cruzi.

Year of publication: 2008

in: Acta Sci. Health Sci. Maringá

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Differentiation of Human Monocytes in Vitro Following Exposure to Canova in the Absence of Cytokines. (2008)

Canova is an immunomodulatory, homeopathic preparation that has been shown to activate macrophages in vitro and in vivo, with resultant enhanced spreading of the cells and formation of microvillus extensions from the cell body. Since monocytes are the precursor cells of macrophages and dendritic cells, the objective of the current study was to investigate the effects of Canova on the differentiation of human blood monocytes in vitro. Monocytes were isolated, grown in culture, and exposed to 10 and 20% Canova without the addition of cytokines. After 48 h, monocytes were prepared for analysis by scanning electron microscopy, while cells kept in culture for 7 days and exposed to Canova on days 1, 3, and 4 were analyzed by flow cytometry for alterations in the levels of expression of CD1a, CD11c, CD14, CD80, CD83, CD86, and HLA-DR. SEM revealed that monocytes exposed to 10% Canova had a morphological appearance similar to that of macrophages. Various cytoplasmic projections were observed with pseudopodia formation. Flow cytometry analysis after exposure of monocytes to 10 and 20% Canova indicated high cell viability and up regulation of CD80, compatible with differentiation into either macrophages or dendritic cells. Exposure to Canova per se causes activation of monocytes with resultant differentiation into large macrophage-like cells of indeterminate phenotype that have increased expression of CD80. Like cytokines, Canova induces differentiation of monocytes, an activity that may underpin the immunomodulatory activity of this product.

Year of publication: 2008

in: Ultrastructural Pathology

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Macrophages in 2A and 2B treated with Canova. Note the large amount of red vesicles in cell projections and the great green color core treaties.

Macrophages in 2A and 2B treated with Canova. Note the large amount of red vesicles in cell projections and the great green color core treaties.

Canova medication and medicinal plants in south of Brazil. (2008)

Brazil is one of the countries with the largest biodiversity of the planet. Its popular culture is particularly rich and the medicinal plants are used non-specifically for fitness and to improve the body function. In Brazil the population utilizes several plants, commonly prepared by infusion (tea), decoction, juice, bottled brew, and consumption of the plant as food. There is no predominance in the use of any specific part of the plant; in some cases, the whole plant is employed. Essential oils and ethanol extracts from the leaves and/or roots of medicinal plants are also commonly used. However the development of phytotherapeutic agents using the Brazilian huge biodiversity allied to the popular knowledge is not satisfactory yet. Studies that scientifically confirm the effectiveness and the safety of products obtained from Brazilian biodiversity will allow their use as a remedy. Nowadays the research in this field is increasing with satisfactory results. The biological model used in our laboratory (cell culture), and microscopy techniques, are suitable to evaluate the mechanisms of action of some phytotherapic as well as homoeopathic products. Canova was shown to be an effective Immunomodulator. The results are very interesting since some of these substances and medicines activate the immune system allowing a natural defense against tumor cells as well as parasites and other infectious agents.

Year of publication: 2008

in: Research Signpost

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Changes of RAPD profile of Trypanosoma cruzi II with Canova and Benznidazole. (2008)

Chagas disease, caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, involves immune mediated processes. Canova (CA) is a homeopathic treatment indicated in the diseases in which the immune system is depressed. This study evaluated the Random Amplification of Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) profile of T. cruzi under the influence of CA and Benznidazole (BZ). Mice infected with the genetic lineage of T. cruzi II (Y strain) were divided into 4 groups: Infected animals treated with saline solution (control group); treated with CA; treated with BZ; treated with CA and BZ combined. Treatment was given at the 5th–25th days of infection (D5–25). The parasites were isolated by hemoculture in Liver Infusion Tryptose (LIT) medium: at D5 (before treatment), D13, 15 and 25 (during treatment) and D55 and 295 (after treatment). DNA was extracted from the mass of parasites. RAPD was done with the primers lgt11-F, M13F-40 and L15996, the amplified products were electrophoresed through a 4% polyacrylamide gel. Data were analyzed by the coefficient of similarity using the DNA-POP program. 163 markers were identified, 5 of them monomorphic. CA did not act against the parasites when used alone. The RAPD profiles of parasites treated with BZ and CA + BZ were different from those in the control group and in the group treated with CA. The actions of the CA and BZ were different and the action of BZ was different from the action of CA + BZ. These data suggest that CA may interact with BZ. The differences in the RAPD profile of the Y strain of T. cruzi produced by BZ, CA + BZ and the natural course of the infection suggest selection/suppression of populations.

Year of publication: 2008

in: Homeopathy

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Gene Expression Profiling of Macrophages Following Mice Treatment With an Immunomodulator Medication. (2008)

Canova (CA) is a complex homeopathic medication used in diseases where the immune system is depressed. Previous studies demonstrated that it is neither toxic nor mutagenic and activates macrophages. We now evaluate CA effects on cytokine production and gene expression from mice macrophages. The global view of changes in expression of genes with known functions can provide a vivid picture of the way in which cell adapts to a changing environment or a challenge. We found a decrease in IL-2 and IL-4 production and a differential expression in 147 genes from CA group. These genes are mainly involved in transcription/translation, cell structure and dynamics, immune response, cytoprotection, enzymatic process, and receptors/ligands. With gene expression analysis we state that this medication provokes a reaction that involves alterations in gene expression profile mainly in the ones involved with macrophages activation, corroborating the laboratorial research and the clinical data.

Year of publication: 2008

in: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry

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Micrograph resident macrophages (1A) and activated by treatment with Canova (1B).

Micrograph resident macrophages (1A) and activated by treatment with Canova (1B).

Phagocytosis, endosomal/lysosomal system and other cellular aspects of macrophage activation by Canova medication. (2006)

Canova is a homeopathic medication with immunomodulatory properties, recommended for diseases where the immune system is depressed. Our research aims to study the activation of mice peritoneal macrophages when submitted to in vivo and in vitro Canova treatment. Morphological parameters and acid phosphatase activity were analyzed using light and transmission electron microscopy. Differential interference contrast microscopy, including serial time acquisition in living cells, was also performed. The results demonstrated a greater spreading ability in Canova treated macrophages, a higher phagocytic activity of non-infective microorganisms (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigotes) and a tendency to lower the phagocytic activity of the infective microorganisms T. cruzi trypomastigotes and Leishmania amazonensis, when compared with control cells. Acid phosphatase activity was analyzed and showed that Canova treatment stimulates an increase of the endosomal/lysosomal system. Treated macrophages that do or do not interact with yeast present a higher number of acid phosphatase marked vesicles compared to control cells. In contrast, the activity of tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), is lower in Canova treated macrophages. The net results demonstrate that Canova medication is an effective stimulator of macrophage activity.

Year of publication: 2006

in: Micron

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Increased Fagocitosisd of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigota (p<0.01)

Increased Fagocitosisd of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigota (p<0.01)

Canova, a Brazilian medical formulation, alters oxidative metabolism of mice macrophages. (2006)

Macrophages play a significant role in the host defense mechanism. When activated they can produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) as well as related reactive nitrogen species (RNS). ROS are produced via NAD(P)H oxidase which catalyzes superoxide (OK2) formation. It is subsequently converted to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) by either spontaneous or enzyme-mediated dismutation. Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) catalyzes nitric oxide (NO) formation. Canova (CA) is a Brazilian medication produced with homeopathic techniques, composed of Aconitum, Thuya, Bryonia, Arsenicum, Lachesis in distilled water containing less than 1% ethanol. Previous studies demonstrated that CA is neither toxic nor mutagenic and activates macrophages decreasing the tumor necrosis factor-a (TNFa) production. In this assay we showed that macrophages triggered with Canova increased NAD(P)H oxidase activity as well as that of iNOS, consequently producing ROS and NO respectively. Cytochrome oxidase and peroxisomes activities were inhibited by NO. As NO and OK2 are being produced at the same time, formation of peroxynitrite (ONOOK) may be occurring. A potential explanation is provided on how treatment with Canova may enhance immune functions which could be particularly important in the cytotoxic actions of macrophages. CA can be considered as a new adjuvant therapeutic approach to known therapies.

Year of publication: 2006

in: Journal of Infection

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Production of nitric oxide (p<0.01) of Oliveira C.C. et al., Journal of Infection 2006, 52/6, 420-432 3

Production of nitric oxide (p<0.01) of Oliveira C.C. et al., Journal of Infection 2006, 52/6, 420-432 3

Activation of bone marrow cells treated with Canova in vitro. (2006)

Canova is a Brazilian complex homeopathic medication produced from Aconitum, Thuya, Bryonia, Lachesis and Arsenicum. Previous studies demonstrated that Canova induces up-regulation in numbers of leukocytes. The bone marrow microenvironment is composed of growth factors, stromal cells, extracellular matrix, and progenitor cells that differentiate into mature blood cells. As it is the major site of blood cell formation, we studied in vitro Canova effects on bone marrow cells of mice. Swiss mouse femurs were dissected, cleaned, and the marrow was flushed. The cells were plated, treated or not, incubated for different times and processed for light, scanning electron, and confocal microscopy, and also flow cytometry. The treatment did not modify the expression of the analyzed surface markers or cytokine production. All microscopy techniques showed that a monocytic lineage (CD11bþ) and stromal cells (adherent cells) were activated by treatment. Canova also increased cell clusters over adherent cells, suggesting proliferation areas

Year of publication: 2006

in: Cell Biology International

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Bone marrow microenvironment and cellular interactions (arrows) and these bone marrow cells were cultured and treated with Canova, allowing cell differentiation.

Bone marrow microenvironment and cellular interactions (arrows) and these bone marrow cells were cultured and treated with Canova, allowing cell differentiation.

Biochemical Responses in Mice Experimentally Infected with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and Treated with Canova. (2006)

The objective of this work was to evaluate biochemical parameters in Paracoccidioides brasiliensis infected mice and the effect of Canova medicine on these parameters. Mice infected with the isolate Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Pb18 and treated with Canova for 17 weeks were used. The biochemical parameters analyzed were the levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and amylase, and the concentration of total proteins, albumin and globulins. The results suggested that the animals that were treated with Canova had less functional alterations in their internal organs.

Year of publication: 2006

in: Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology

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In vivo and in vitro effects of the Canova medicine on experimental infection with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis in mice. (2006)

To evaluate the in vivo and in vitro activity of Canova in experimental infection with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Materials and Methods: Mice infected with P. brasiliensis were treated with Canova for 17 weeks. Follow-up measures included the determination of total antibodies, global and differential leukocyte counts. Further, nitric oxide production was determined by adding macrophage cultures to different concentrations of Canova in the presence or absence of P. brasiliensis. Results: The data revealed the protective effect of Canova in P. brasiliensis- infected animals. A higher nitric oxide production was found in the Canova- treated cultures. Conclusion: These data suggest that Canova activates the macrophages by a way that depends, at least in part, on nitric oxide.

Year of publication: 2006

in: Indian Journal of Pharmacology

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Immunomodulatory effect of Canova medication on experimental Leishmania amazonensis infection. (2005)

This study investigates the action of Canova medication (CM) on experimental infection by Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis, utilizing in vitro and in vivo assays. For the in vitro tests, Balb/c mouse peritoneal macrophages (5! 105 cells in 500 ml of culture medium, supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum, penicillin (100 U/ml) and streptomycin (0.1 mg/ml) (were distributed in 24-well plates and CM was added at concentrations of 20 or 40%. Twenty-four hours later, the macrophages were infected with Leishmania amastigotes in culture medium. The effect of CM on macrophages leishmanicidal activity in 24 and 48 h cultures was evaluated by determining infection index and measuring nitric oxide (NO) production. The in vivo tests were performed in mice infected with 107 L. (L.) amazonensis promastigotes injected in to the right hind footpad (25 ml in phosphate buffered saline). The progression of the lesions was examined over a 9-week period by measuring footpad swelling, and the parasite load in regional lymph nodes and spleen. The in vitro results showed that at 40% CM reduced the infection index, and induced NO production in the elicited macrophages, which suggests that the inhibitory effect on infection index may be mediated by NO. In the in vivo infection, when administered, orally or subcutaneously in mice, CM reduced infection by L. (L.) amazonensis in the paws, resulting in smaller lesions. CM treatment also decreased parasite load in the regional popliteal lymph nodes and in the spleen. These results suggest that CM modulates experimental infection by L. (L.) amazonensis, controlling infection progression and limiting dissemination.

Year of publication: 2005

in: Journal of Infection

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Histopathological and immunophenotyping studies on normal and sarcoma 180-bearing mice treated with a Brazilian homeopathic medication. (2005)

Canova is a homeopathic complex medicine, used as an immune modulator. We studied its effects in normal and sarcoma 180-bearing mice. Three control groups were also evaluated. The mice were examined at daily intervals and the tumors observed histologically. Peripheral blood was analyzed by flow cytometry. A delay in the development and a reduction in size of the tumors, and increased infiltration by lymphoid cells, granulation tissue, and fibrosis surrounding the tumors were observed with active treatment compared to control. All animals from the treated group survived, 30% of control groups died. In 30% of treated animals, a total regression of the tumor was confirmed using light microscopy, no regression was found in the control groups. Treatment with Canova increased total numbers of leukocytes and lymphocytes. Among lymphocytes, TCD4, increased in normal-treated group and B and NK cells in S180-treated groups. The results reflect enhanced immune response of the host after treatment with Canova.

Year of publication: 2005

in: Homeopathy

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Reduction of the volume of the tumor mass after the treatment with Canova (group S = I group with sarcoma, group ST = I group with sarcoma treated with Canova)

Reduction of the volume of the tumor mass after the treatment with Canova (group S = I group with sarcoma, group ST = I group with sarcoma treated with Canova)

The anticancer homeopathic composite “Canova Method” is not genotoxic for human lymphocytes in vitro. (2003)

The Canova Method (CM) is a homeopathic medicine indicated for the treatment of patients with cancer and for pathologies that involve a depressed immune system, such as AIDS. This product is composed of homeopathic dilutions of Aconitum napellus, Arsenicum album (arsenic trioxide), Bryonia alba, Lachesis muta venom and Thuya occidentalis. It stimulates the immune system by activating macrophages. Activated macrophages stimulate the lymphocytes so that they increase their cytotoxic action in response to tumoral growth or infection. Given that the CM stimulates and accelerates the activity of macrophages and lymphocytes, we evaluated genotoxic effects induced in human lymphocytes treated with this homeopathic medication in vitro. Structural and numerical chromosomal aberrations were scored for the assessment of induced genotoxic effects, while the variation in mitotic index was considered as a monitor for induced cellular toxicity. The lymphocytes were cultivated for 24, 48 or 72 h in the following final concentrations of the medicinal composite CM: 4, 8 and 12%. Treatments with the CM did not affect mitotic indexes, nor did they provoke chromosomal aberrations, when compared with untreated controls. There was no cytotoxicity or genotoxicity at the chromosomal level.

Year of publication: 2003

in: Genetics and Molecular Research

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Analysis of IL-2, IFN-g and TNF-a production, a5b1 integrins and actin filaments distribution in intraperitoneal mouse macrophages treated with homeopathic medicament. (2002)

The newer forms of Immune modulatory therapy are aimed at specific cells or cytokines that contribute to the immune response. These forms immunotherapy have been referred to as 'biological response modifiers'. Our lab was interested in investigating if a homeopathic medicament “Method Canova” (MC), sold in homeopathic drugstores, does enhance immunological system responses acting through macrophages pathway. Mice peritoneal macrophages were cultivated with or without homeopathic medicament for 24 h for α5, β1 and actin filaments distribution analyses through immunolabelling for confocal microscopy. To detect the IL-2, IFN-γ and TNF-α production these cells were cultivated for 48 h with or without medicament, followed by analyses of these cytokines in supernatant culture with ELISA kits. It was observed differences in morphology and molecular distribution (α5 and β1 integrins, actin filaments and Fc receptors) between the groups control and treated with MC. In control group macrophages had the morphology of resident cells and in MC treated group macrophages were more spread, had many cellular projections and a substantial increase in cytoplasmic volume. In addition, macrophages culture with two doses of MC showed that TNF-α production decreased when compared with control group.

Year of publication: 2002

in: Journal of Submicroscopy Cytology and Pathology

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Journal of Submicroscopy Cytology and Pathology

Journal of Submicroscopy Cytology and Pathology